pada pertemuan kelima, di kelas membahas tentang interactive communications and cosumer behavior oleh DR. Chairy
v Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communication Options
·         The message initiator (the source)/the sender.
·         The medium.
·         The message.
·         The target audience (the receivers).
·         Feedback – the receiver’s response.

The traditional communications model
v The traditional communications model doesn’t tell the whole story…
·         Consumers have many choices available and greater control to process messages
·         Permission marketing
o   More successful in persuading the consumers who have agreed to let him or her try.

v Consumers are now proactive in communications process: VCRs, DVRs, video-on-demand, pay-per-view TV, Caller ID, Internet

v The source of a message can have a big impact on the likelihood that a message will be accepted
v Expert, celebrity, or “typical consumers”?
·         Utilitarian products/high performance risk products: vacuums
·         High social risk product: jewelry, furniture
·         Everyday product/low risk product; cookies
v Two particularly important source characteristic: credibility & attractiveness

v The Source Credibility
·         Source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
·         Credibility of informal sources
o   Strong – have nothing to gain from the transaction; WOM
·         Credibility of formal sources
o   Not-for-profit sources > for-profit sources

v Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers
·         Endorser credibility are important when message comprehension is low
·         Match must exist between product attributes and endorser attributes
·         Credibility is higher when endorser’s demographic characteristic are similar to those of target audience
·         ………..(the person)?

v Message Credibility
v The source
v The reputation of the medium; the retailer
v Consumer’s previous experience with the product

v The Sleeper Effect
·         The process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish overtime
·          Both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time (six weeks)
·         Dissociative cue hypothesis: over the time the source and the message become disassociated in the consumer’s mind; consumers simply forget the source faster than they forget the message

v Source Bias
·         Knowledge bias: source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate
·         Reporting bias: a source has the required knowledge but his or her willingness to convey it accurately is compromised (Taufik & Yonex)
·         Britney Spears drinks coca-cola & “drives Honda City”; Jamie Aditya drinks Teh Botol, etc.

v Hype Vs Buzz: The Corporate Paradox
·         Hype: corporate propaganda planted by a company to create product sensation; inauthentic
·         Buzz: word of mouth that is viewed as authentic and generated by customers
·         The corporate paradox: the more involved a company appears to be in the dissemination of news about its products, the less credible it becomes.

v The Source Attractiveness
·         The source’s perceived social value
·         “What is beautiful is good” stereotype : physical attractiveness
·         Celebrities as communications sources; match-up hypothesis; the drawbacks of celebrity endorsers

v Madonna & Coca-cola
o   Non human endorsers
v Cartoon characters and mascots, virtual models

v Words or pictures ?
·         Verbal stimuli affect the utilitarian aspects of a product
o   High involvement situation; more frequent exposure
·         Visual stimuli affect aesthetic evaluations
·         Verbal element are more effective when reinforced by an accompanying picture: increase consumer recall of the verbal information
v Repetition
·         Double-edged sword: awareness Vs habituation
·         Limiting the amount of exposure per repetition (15 second spots)
v   One-Versus Two-Sides Messages?
·         One sided; stress only favorable informations
·         Two sided: both good and bad points are presented
·         Friendly Vs unfriendly/critical audience
v Draw Conclusions?
·         Personally relevant message: people will pay attention to it and spontaneously inferences
·         Hard to follow arguments or consumer’s motivation to follow is lacking: draw conclusions
v Comparative Advertising?
·         Brand positioning strategis
·         Assist recall of the competitor’s brand?
v    Message Framing?
·         Positive message framing: stress the benefits to be gained by using the products – low involvement situations; independent self image
·         Negative message framing: stress the benefits to be lost by not using the product – high involvement situations; interdependent self-view
v    Order Effects?
·         Primacy effect Vs recency effect
·         The first, the last or in between?
v Emotional Vs Rational Appeals
·         The kind of audience (education)
·         The degree of involvement
v   Sexual Appeals
·         Varies from country to country
·         Must be relevant to the product 
v Humorous Appeals
·         Low involvement products
·         The audience already has positive attitudes toward the brand
·         Younger, better-educated, upscale, professional tend to be more receptive

·         Humor attracts attention
·         Humor does not harm comprehension
·         Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion
·         Humor doesn’t enhance source credibility
·         Humor enhance liking
·         Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product
·         Audience demographic factors affect the response to humourous advertising appeals
·         The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of humorous treatment
·         Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products
·         Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement product and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.

v Fear Appeals
·         Negative relationship between the intensity of fear appeals and their ability to persuade
·         More commonly used in social marketing context
·         Should be examined carefully before they are used.

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